Borehole Drilling For Dummies

Borehole drilling is the process of creating an excavation of a cylindrical shape by breaking the rocks at the bottom. As a rule, borehole drilling is carried out in the crust, at least in case of working with artificial materials (concrete, asphalt and etc.). In some cases the process includes fixing the casing walls with the injection of cement slurry into the annulus between the pipe and the walls of the borehole.

The scope for boreholes drilling is extremely diverse and includes a broad variety of aspects, including mineral resources exploration, rocks properties researching; liquid, gaseous and solid minerals production through boreholes drilling; artificial rocks fixing (freezing , bituminization, cementation and etc.); draining flooded areas and wetland for mineral deposits e; laying of underground utilities, construction of pile foundations and etc.

Borehole drilling methods classification

Due to outstanding efficiency borehole drilling and the related fields have formed a separate branch in geophysics. Frankly speaking, the classification of drilling methods is a topic for the whole book, so mentioned below is a brief description on the main directions of the branch.

Therefore, the drilling methods are divided into mechanical ones that imply direct action and non-mechanical characterized by the action (thermal, explosive and etc.) applied to the source of the deposit. Mechanical drilling methods are divided into rotary and percussion (though, they may be combined). In rotary drilling the rock collapses due to rotation of the anchored instrument to its bottom. Depending on the strength of the rock, borehole drilling experts make a decision on the type of drilling tool to utilize (diamond drilling tool or special crowns).

As a rule, a seasoned company is ready to take advantage of any suitable method, meaning its arsenal features the required equipment and staff. If you are looking to have your borehole project delivered quickly and diligently, get in touch with the proven industry professionals –European Geophysical Services. The company has more than 9 years of geophysics and borehole drilling experience accordingly, having delivered over 100 domestic projects in United Kingdom.

Borehole drilling: an excursion into history

Basing on archaeological findings the numerous studies show that a primitive man used drilled holes to excavate various materials more than 25 thousand years ago. In ancient Egypt rotary drilling was used in the construction of the pyramids about 6,000 years ago.

The first reports on Chinese water boreholes are referred to the works of Confucius, written around 600 BC. The boreholes of nearly 900m in depth depicted in the works by a famous philosopher were constructed using percussive drilling. This suggests that before such drilling technique was applied it was needed to be developed for at least a few hundred years.

The documentary evidence of drilling technology is pretty poor; however, judging by the ancient Chinese painting, bas-reliefs, tapestries, murals and embroideries on silk, this technique was presumably highly developed still.

As time passed, the process of borehole drilling has been constantly improved. Thus, walls collapse was a common issue for boreholes, and to resolve the problem our ancestors used hollow tree trunks or pipes to fix the construction.

The first borehole was drilled in the United States: designed for brine extraction it was built in vicinity of the city of Charleston in West Virginia in 1806 (shortly before the emergence of geophysics as a synergy of two sciences). As the excavation works in the region were gaining momentum, borehole drilling method was used more frequently, and 20 years after the local industrialists discovered huge oil deposits.


The risks of drink driving charges is there… even if you don’t actually drive

Each year more than 100,000 drivers are stopped by police stops with the level of alcohol exceeding 35 mgr in 100 ml of breath. The outcome of drink driving can be costly: a fine up to 5000 pounds can be issued, not to mention a disqualification of up to 3 years. In case of serious offences from 3 months to 14 years of imprisonment can be imposed.

This is the story about Martin Ostrowski, a law abiding citizen with no criminal records to his name and a long road made to obtain citizenship. On Friday night Martin went to the pub to drink beer with friends and left his car in the parking lot nearby. The last guest arriving at the party, he parked crookedly in a hurry, so the car was not parallel to the curb.

It was a perfect, long night with old good friends and five glasses of beer were liquored up almost unnoticed. Late at once the party was over he reached the car and realised that driving is not an option. Martin decided to take a nap, so he sat in the driver’s seat, lowered it and wrapped himself in a blanket.

He was awakened by a knock on the window and a flashlight – it was the police. They just wanted to know why the the car hadn’t been parked normally. Martin got out and started to talk – but it was all clear to the patrolmen. So he was asked to take a test for alcohol, which revealed 51 mg – enough to initiate legal proceedings.

A sad concatenation of circumstances has not only made the risk of a heavy fine and disqualification, but also put years of hard work as for acquiring citizenship in jeopardy. So the only way out was seeking for quality legal assistance… which worked. Martin has taken advantage of Solicitors Guru to find a motorist law specialist focusing on drink driving and speeding penalties – a platform provides an impressive selection of legal services.

So as the legal proceeding was inevitable Martin was instructed on how to respond to police questions and give comments (in this particular case things were largely narrowed to ‘no comments’). During the proceedings the conjunctive work of defence (Martin and his lawyer) has managed to keep the results at more than accessible level: the 6 points penalty and a 300 pounds fine were issued, but the driving license was not disqualified and the citizenship status was rescued, as the outcome didn’t have any impact on it. The worst case scenario was avoided, and the price paid for the full legal services assistance was estimated at 850 pounds.

Martin says he could have cut off his expenses through self-representation in the court – in this case the price could have been 500 pounds, but the absence of legal background was the lion in the path. ‘It was a high price to pay for the night in the car… I could have chosen a luxurious 5 star hotel, but at least the outcome is ok. I’ve learned the lesson once and for all’.


What You Should Know About Concrete Fire Resistance

Under the fire resistance of concrete a short-term reaction to fire is meant, while heat resistance of concrete is resistance to long-term and permanent high temperatures. Concrete is one of the not many solid fire resistant materials. Due to the relatively low thermal conductivity of concrete short-term exposure to high temperatures does not have time to cause significant heating of concrete and reinforcement covered with protective layers. This is where watering strongly heated concrete with cold water (primarily in fire fighting) is much more dangerous, as it inevitably causes the formation of cracks, the destruction of the protective layer and exposing the valve with continued high temperatures.

Under conditions of prolonged exposure to high temperatures conventional concrete based on Portland cement is not suitable for use at temperatures above 250°. It was found that when heated above 250-300° a reduction in the strength of the decomposition of calcium hydroxide and the destruction of the structure of cement stone. At temperatures above 550° grains of quartz sand and crushed granite start to crack due to the transition of quartz at these temperatures in another modification (tridymite), which is associated with a significant increase in the volume of quartz grains and the formation of microcracks at the point where the grain and cement stone are connected. At higher temperatures a range of other structural elements of conventional concrete is destroyed.

Heat-resistant concrete production for extreme t

However, there are ways to create heat-resistant concrete, resisting the temperatures of 1100-1200° or more. And according to scientific Telling Company experts, a UK-based engineering business, widely utilising hydraulic lime, lime mortar and concrete technologies, such technology will become the production standard in the nearest decade

To achieve this, the concrete grinding mill must have siliceous additives or binding free calcium hydroxide released during the hydration of cement. As the fillers materials having a sufficient degree of fire resistance and heat resistance are used, such as chromium iron ore, fire clay, basalt, andesite, depleted blast furnace slag, tuff and brick rubble. The maximum temperature such design can withstand depends on the fire resistance and thermal stability of aggregates and additives. Thus, the application of fire clay and additives increase the maximum operating temperature of fire-resistant concrete up to 1100-1200°. With a maximum operating temperature of 700° basalt, diabase, andesite, depleted blast furnace slag can be used as concrete fillers and as additives – pumice, fly ash and blast furnace slag can be utilised. For the same temperature (700°) it is permitted to replace Portland cement in concrete with slag Portland cement without introducing fine additives.

For the preparation of heat-resistant concrete with operational temperatures up to 1300-1400° aluminous cement should be used with small and large aggregates of grog or chromium iron ore. Mill ground additive for binding of calcium hydroxide in this case is not required. As a binder for heat-resistant concrete with a maximum temperature up to 900-1000° liquid glass with sodium silicofluoride can be used.

Konecranes-Crane (1)

Lifting Equipment Efficiency From A Professional Point Of View

The productivity of lifting equipment is the number of tons of cargo or designs, processed per unit of time. In practice, operational productivity is consider to be the volume of work performed by machine. The operational performance of the crane is affected by a number of fixed and variable parameters. The article is prepared basing on the material published by the leaders of the industry: GMH, a far-famed manufacturer, lifting equipment inspection and lifting equipment services expert, as well as Machinery Britannia, another major UK business.

Constant parameters are determined by performance characteristics of the crane’s load capacity (including the cases with no outriggers and traveling with a load), hook height, speed of movement of workers, the method changes the length of the arrows, time-consuming to install working equipment and ease of maintenance units.

Variables do not depend on the design of the crane – they are determined by the conditions of its application and driver’s qualifications. These include: the kind of cargo, type of work, design-planning decisions of the object, the type of cargo handling point, the technological scheme of work, type of road base, as well as the location of the object area.

Continue Reading...

Waste Recycling: The Swedish Way

Sweden has almost zero oil and gas reserves. Until the 70s of the last century the Swedes lived literally from one to the next heating season. In this Nordic country a very warm summer is when the air temperature rises to 22-23 degrees. Cold winter with temperatures below zero is the longest season here. Swedish energy industry, as well as the economy as a whole, has been in dependence on imports of hydrocarbons and the fuel gas for quite long time.

The only way out of gas cabbala for Sweden was the transition to the widespread use of alternative energy sources and virtually complete rejection from costly imports of oil and gas. But not all the conventional methods worked there: the climate in Sweden is too far from being cloudless, so the collection of solar energy couldn’t provide Swedes with energy to the desired extent. But household and industrial waste is another story.

The Swedes have calculated that after production of an average mobile device equaled 75 kg of waste, while one person produced about 1-1.5 kilograms of waste. Obviously, junk is an inexhaustible resource, constantly revolving, and permanently available. A solution of environmental problems, which helps fight reuse and recycling of household waste was a pleasant ‘side effect’ for the economy.

Energy efforts results

Thanks to the Swedish recycling program more than 99% of all waste is recycled. For comparison: in the US, only 34% is recycled. Moreover, Sweden helps fight dumping in neighboring European countries, purchasing their production waste. Sweden is not able to recycle only 0.7% of the locally produced garbage. Meanwhile, in the world of processing 40-50% processing rate is considered to be a good indicator. It is not surprising that many countries, including the highly developed European economies, are happy to export waste to Sweden. Every year the country receives 800 thousand tons of foreign garbage, including those from Germany, Belgium, Romania, Bulgaria, Italy.

About half of the Swedish waste goes for recycling into energy. Disposal of solid waste accounts for 20% of the heat in the Swedish homes. Today so heated 900,000 Swedish households. In the production of biogas takes 15% of garbage (it goes to the needs of public transport). The used paper and making the new paper, plastic and the new plastic.

Swedish government creates favorable environment for processing businesses and invests in researches to press for financial liability. Thus, the govs investigate the expertise and technologies offered by the industry titans, such as UK-based Simdean, focusing on industrial waste disposal, plasma waste disposal and providing professional consultations.

Interestingly, a ton of recycled plastic bottles allows developing enough energy to fully meet the needs of the household. A 4 tons of waste produce as much energy as one ton of oil.

In Sweden, there are 30 power plants processing 5.5 million tons of garbage a year, and that’s the statistics that grow year by year. According to forecasts, in the next few years, the number of the world’s garbage will only grow, and by 2025 its volume will increase by more than twice


Digital Marketing Aspects: Segmentation In A Nutshell

If the customer subscribed to your newsletter, it does not necessarily mean that he or she experiences the buzz when reading it. Many businesses, unfortunately, do not take into account the fact that the needs and interests of their customers can vary greatly. Imagine you are selling sports clothes and want to convey information about new products to its customers. Whether your male audience is interested in a brand-new line of women’s sports clothing? Do teenagers want to know more about products for kids?

Segmentation is the process of dividing the audience into groups according to particular parameters. A list of addresses of your subscribers can be segmented by different groups: it all depends on the characteristics of the distribution. The basic information necessary for the separation of the audience is collected during subscription, however, some data (such as the frequency of reading the letters) is constantly updated. As practised at HTP, a digital marketing agency Manchester boasting over 20+ successful top league promotion projects, before collecting information expert figures out the data needed carefully, leaving the most essential questions only. Remember that too detailed segmentation demands extra work and not always pays off.

When it comes to providing any personal information, the client is typically limited to e-mail address and name (or nickname, if the questionnaire is offered to be filled in). And no quality certificates will convince a customer to share more data, even if you are running a big brand and boast fine reputation. So this is what digital marketing Manchester specialists do to retrieve the info:

  • Show the customer what are you going to send. You need to get the idea out: a short and catchy piece of content should be followed by a subscription offer.
  • Show user their benefit of a subscription. Few would like to share their birth date, though if you bribe them with a special discounts or gift the odds to succeed are pretty good.

The Role Of Personalisation In Digital Marketing

Continue Reading...
DCH7J4 Trademark. Concept of cut-out words related with business activity

Trademark Concept: Historical And Legal Aspects Of The Concept

The introduction of the brand has become a major aspect product company formation. On the one hand, the development of brand requires long-term investments in marketing, especially in the field of advertising, sales promotion and packaging. For the producers of goods it is often easier and cheaper just to release the goods, leaving the issue of creating the brand to others. Thus, e.g. Taiwanese manufacturers, learned this lesson well: they account for a significant portion of the world’s production of clothing, electronics and computers, though these goods are sold under other companies’ trademarks. On the other hand, most manufacturers eventually realise that success comes to companies controlling the goods with the trademark. And yet another decent example: the University of Manchester has established a UMIP branch, focused on intellectual property aspects only and working to commercialise the scientific developments. More examples: manufacturers of clothes, electronics and computers under the brand name may change its Taiwanese partners on cheaper Malaysian (or some other). This Taiwanese manufacturer is handcuffed when it comes to preventing the loss of sales due to the fact that a cheaper supplier was found while consumers remain faithful to the brand, not the manufacturer. Japanese and South Korean companies didn’t make such mistakes in the past. With years of hard work they have created such brands as Sony, Panasonic, JVC, Hyundai, Goldstar and Samsung. And even if these companies can no longer afford to produce their goods in their home country, their brands continue to lead the preferences of buyers. 

Continue Reading...

Ultrasonic Cleaning Supporting World’s Manufacturing Growth

The continuous increase in the variety of sophisticated electronic components, as well as the growing demand for their reliability and durability gives birth to a need in effective and reliable removal method of impurities in the form of particles, films and other contaminants. Even microscopic contamination can cause significant financial losses due to malfunctions and damage electronic systems. Regardless of the type of items to be cleaned, whether it is silicon wafer, printed circuit boards, electronic contact or light alloy board, there are different solutions, for example, wet chemical cleaning, or carbon dioxide plasma, which can achieve the desired degree of purity in an economically efficient manner.

The universal power of ultrasound

Wet chemical ultrasonic cleaning with solvents, alcohols or modified aqueous solutions is widely used in manufacturing industries. Such companies, like Hilsonic, producing a wide array of ultrasonic cleaner equipment, confirmed the impressive potential of the approach (the line-up of cleaners remove particles, flux residue contamination, oil films and etc.). Apart from the type of detergent another decisive factor is the frequency of the cleaning efficiency of electrical pulses generated and transmitted by the ultrasonic generator in the form of sound waves in the oscillatory system with a liquid container. For this method, the following is true: the lower the frequency of the electrical pulses, the higher the energy of the sound waves is.

A good example of this method is quality cleaning after soldering printed circuit boards for good adhesion of the protective varnish that is applied subsequently. The most important thing is to remove flux residues and fingerprints that may remain on the surface. The standard process consists of two stages: the first one is ultrasonic cleaning of products stored in a container, during which the holder parts also makes additional oscillatory motion. After these steps the products must be washed with double deionised water and dried.

Continue Reading...